Architecture deals with

What about the next trends in Airbnb rentals? A curated concept of portable free standing bunkers, in order to expand the Airbnb concept in warehouses, industrial buildings, exhibition venues, open plots. The 2,5X2,5 X 2,5 free standing-two storey bunkers, are similar as shells, yet differ in the interior concept design.

Virtual Tour. WHY VISIT The Architect Show gives visitors the chance to meet with the all the important professional in the sectors of architecture and interior design, showcasing the latest innovations. Register Now. Roman aqueduct in Segovia , Spain. The architecture of different parts of Asia developed along different lines from that of Europe; Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh architecture each having different characteristics. Buddhist architecture, in particular, showed great regional diversity. Hindu temple architecture, which developed around the 3rd century BCE, is governed by concepts laid down in the Shastras, and is concerned with expressing the macrocosm and the microcosm.

In many Asian countries, pantheistic religion led to architectural forms that were designed specifically to enhance the natural landscape. Gyeongbokgung Palace in Seoul , South Korea. Kinkaku-ji Golden Pavilion , Kyoto , Japan. Bahay na Bato houses in Philippines.

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The ceiling of Dilwara Jain Temples , India. Islamic architecture began in the 7th century CE , incorporating architectural forms from the ancient Middle East and Byzantium , but also developing features to suit the religious and social needs of the society. Dome of the Rock , Jerusalem. Taj Mahal in Agra , India. Alhambra , Granada , Spain. Shah Mosque in Isfahan , Iran. In Europe during the Medieval period, guilds were formed by craftsmen to organize their trades and written contracts have survived, particularly in relation to ecclesiastical buildings.

The role of architect was usually one with that of master mason, or Magister lathomorum as they are sometimes described in contemporary documents. The major architectural undertakings were the buildings of abbeys and cathedrals. From about CE onward, the movements of both clerics and tradesmen carried architectural knowledge across Europe, resulting in the pan-European styles Romanesque and Gothic. Also, significant part of Middle Ages architectural heritage are numerous fortifications across the continent.

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From Balkans to Spain, and from Malta to Estonia, these buildings represent important part of European heritage. Notre Dame de Paris , France. The Tower of London , England.

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Doge's Palace , Venice , Italy. Stari Most , 16th-c. In Renaissance Europe, from about onwards, there was a revival of Classical learning accompanied by the development of Renaissance Humanism which placed greater emphasis on the role of the individual in society than had been the case during the Medieval period. Buildings were ascribed to specific architects — Brunelleschi , Alberti , Michelangelo , Palladio — and the cult of the individual had begun.

There was still no dividing line between artist , architect and engineer , or any of the related vocations, and the appellation was often one of regional preference.

A revival of the Classical style in architecture was accompanied by a burgeoning of science and engineering which affected the proportions and structure of buildings. At this stage, it was still possible for an artist to design a bridge as the level of structural calculations involved was within the scope of the generalist.

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Peter's Basilica , Rome , Italy. Santa Maria Novella , Florence , Italy. With the emerging knowledge in scientific fields and the rise of new materials and technology, architecture and engineering began to separate, and the architect began to concentrate on aesthetics and the humanist aspects, often at the expense of technical aspects of building design. There was also the rise of the "gentleman architect" who usually dealt with wealthy clients and concentrated predominantly on visual qualities derived usually from historical prototypes, typified by the many country houses of Great Britain that were created in the Neo Gothic or Scottish Baronial styles.

Meanwhile, the Industrial Revolution laid open the door for mass production and consumption. Aesthetics became a criterion for the middle class as ornamented products, once within the province of expensive craftsmanship, became cheaper under machine production. Vernacular architecture became increasingly ornamental. House builders could use current architectural design in their work by combining features found in pattern books and architectural journals. Palais Garnier , Paris , France. Around the beginning of the 20th century, a general dissatisfaction with the emphasis on revivalist architecture and elaborate decoration gave rise to many new lines of thought that served as precursors to Modern Architecture.

Notable among these is the Deutscher Werkbund , formed in to produce better quality machine made objects. The rise of the profession of industrial design is usually placed here. Following this lead, the Bauhaus school, founded in Weimar , Germany in , redefined the architectural bounds prior set throughout history, viewing the creation of a building as the ultimate synthesis—the apex—of art, craft, and technology. When modern architecture was first practiced, it was an avant-garde movement with moral, philosophical, and aesthetic underpinnings.

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Immediately after World War I , pioneering modernist architects sought to develop a completely new style appropriate for a new post-war social and economic order, focused on meeting the needs of the middle and working classes. They rejected the architectural practice of the academic refinement of historical styles which served the rapidly declining aristocratic order.

The approach of the Modernist architects was to reduce buildings to pure forms, removing historical references and ornament in favor of functionalist details. Buildings displayed their functional and structural elements, exposing steel beams and concrete surfaces instead of hiding them behind decorative forms. Architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright developed organic architecture , in which the form was defined by its environment and purpose, with an aim to promote harmony between human habitation and the natural world with prime examples being Robie House and Fallingwater.

Architects such as Mies van der Rohe , Philip Johnson and Marcel Breuer worked to create beauty based on the inherent qualities of building materials and modern construction techniques, trading traditional historic forms for simplified geometric forms, celebrating the new means and methods made possible by the Industrial Revolution , including steel-frame construction, which gave birth to high-rise superstructures. Fazlur Rahman Khan 's development of the tube structure was a technological break-through in building ever higher. The Bauhaus school building in Dessau , Germany.

Willis Tower , Chicago , United States. Many architects resisted modernism , finding it devoid of the decorative richness of historical styles. But an even new younger postwar generation critiqued modernism and Brutalism for being too austere, standardized, monotone, and not taking into account the richness of human experience offered in historical buildings across time and in different places and cultures. One such reaction to the cold aesthetic of modernism and Brutalism is the school of metaphoric architecture , which includes such things as biomorphism and zoomorphic architecture , both using nature as the primary source of inspiration and design.

While it is considered by some to be merely an aspect of postmodernism , others consider it to be a school in its own right and a later development of expressionist architecture.

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Beginning in the late s and s, architectural phenomenology emerged as an important movement in the early reaction against modernism, with architects like Charles Moore in the United States, Christian Norberg-Schulz in Norway, and Ernesto Nathan Rogers and Vittorio Gregotti , Michele Valori , Bruno Zevi in Italy, who collectively popularized an interest in a new contemporary architecture aimed at expanding human experience using historical buildings as models and precedents.

Robert Venturi famously defined postmodern architecture as a "decorated shed" an ordinary building which is functionally designed inside and embellished on the outside , and upheld it against modernist and brutalist "ducks" buildings with unnecessarily expressive tectonic forms. Sydney Opera House , Australia. Since the s, as the complexity of buildings began to increase in terms of structural systems, services, energy and technologies , the field of architecture became multi-disciplinary with specializations for each project type, technological expertise or project delivery methods.

In addition, there has been an increased separation of the 'design' architect [Notes 1] from the 'project' architect who ensures that the project meets the required standards and deals with matters of liability. A large structure can no longer be the design of one person but must be the work of many. Modernism and Postmodernism have been criticised by some members of the architectural profession who feel that successful architecture is not a personal, philosophical, or aesthetic pursuit by individualists; rather it has to consider everyday needs of people and use technology to create liveable environments, with the design process being informed by studies of behavioral, environmental, and social sciences.

Environmental sustainability has become a mainstream issue, with profound effect on the architectural profession. Many developers, those who support the financing of buildings, have become educated to encourage the facilitation of environmentally sustainable design, rather than solutions based primarily on immediate cost. Major examples of this can be found in passive solar building design , greener roof designs , biodegradable materials, and more attention to a structure's energy usage.

This major shift in architecture has also changed architecture schools to focus more on the environment. There has been an acceleration in the number of buildings which seek to meet green building sustainable design principles. Sustainable practices that were at the core of vernacular architecture increasingly provide inspiration for environmentally and socially sustainable contemporary techniques. Concurrently, the recent movements of New Urbanism , metaphoric architecture and New Classical Architecture promote a sustainable approach towards construction that appreciates and develops smart growth , architectural tradition and classical design.

Bird's Nest stadium , Beijing, China.

London City Hall , England. Auditorio de Tenerife , Canary Islands , Spain. Business architecture is defined as "a blueprint of the enterprise that provides a common understanding of the organization and is used to align strategic objectives and tactical demands. Business architecture is the bridge between the enterprise business model and enterprise strategy on one side, and the business functionality of the enterprise on the other side.


Cognitive architecture can refer to a theory about the structure of the human mind. One of the main goals of a cognitive architecture is to summarize the various results of cognitive psychology in a comprehensive computer model. However, the results need to be in a formalized form so far that they can be the basis of a computer program.


The formalized models can be used to further refine a comprehensive theory of cognition , and more immediately, as a commercially usable model. The Institute of Creative Technologies defines cognitive architecture as: "hypothesis about the fixed structures that provide a mind, whether in natural or artificial systems, and how they work together — in conjunction with knowledge and skills embodied within the architecture — to yield intelligent behavior in a diversity of complex environments.

In computer engineering , "computer architecture" is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems. Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. Enterprise architecture EA is "a well-defined practice for conducting enterprise analysis, design, planning, and implementation, using a holistic approach at all times, for the successful development and execution of strategy.

Enterprise architecture applies architecture principles and practices to guide organizations through the business, information, process, and technology changes necessary to execute their strategies. These practices utilize the various aspects of an enterprise to identify, motivate, and achieve these changes.